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Tuesday, May 28, 2019

CELLULITIS

                                 
                         CELLULITIS


DEFINITION

Cellulitis is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender. `It can spread rapidly to other parts of the body. Cellulitis isn't usually spread person to person.

Skin on lower legs is most commonly affected,. through cellulitis can occur anywhere on your body or face.Cellulitis might affect only your skin surface. Or it might also affect tissues underlying your skin and can spread to your lymph nodes and bloodstream.

Left untreated, the spreading  infection can rapidly turn life threatening. It's important to seek immediate medical attention of cellulitis symptoms occur.

SYMPTOMS

Possible sings and symptoms of cellulitis , which usually occur on one side of the body, include:


  • Red area of the skin that tends to expand
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Pain
  • Warmth
  • Fever
  • Red spot
  • Blisters
  • Skin dimpling


CAUSES

Cellulitis occurs when bacteria, most commonly streptococcus and staphylococcus, enter through a crack or break in your skin. The incident of a more serious staphylococcus called methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing

Bacteria most likely entire disrupted areas of the skin, such as where you had recent surgery, cut, puncture wounds, an ulcer, athletet's foot or dermatitis

Certain type of insect or spider bites also can transmit the bacteria that start the infection. Bacteria can also enter through areas of dry, flaky skin or swollen skin

RISK FACTORS

Several factors can place you at greater risk of developing cellulitis.


  • INJURY.  Any cut ,fracture, burn or scrape gives bacteria an entry point.
  • WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEM. Condition that weaken your immune system- such as diabetes, leukemia and HIV/AIDS- leave you more susceptible to infection. Certain medication , such as corticosteroids, also can weaken your immune system.
  • SKIN CONDITION. Skin disorder such as eczema, athlete's foot, chicken pox and shingles-can cause breaks the skin and give bacteria an entry point.
  • CHRONIC SWELLING OF YOUR ARMS AND LEGS  (LYMPHEDEMA). Swollen may crack, leaving your skin vulnerable to bacterial infection.
  • HISTORY OF CELLULITIS. People who previously had cellulitis , especially of the lower leg, may be more pron to develop it again.
  • INTRAVENOUS DRUG USE. People who inject illegal drug have higher risk of developing cellulitis.
  •  OBESITY. Being overweight or obese increases your risk of cellulitis.                 


COMPLICATIONS

The bacteria that cause cellulitis can spread rapidly,entering lymph nodes and your blood stream. Recurrent episodes of cellulitis may damage the lymphatic drainage system and cause chronic swelling of the affected limb

In the rare cases, infection can spread to the deep layer of tissue called the fascial lining. Flesh-eating strep is an example of a deep layer infection. It represents an extreme emergency.

TEST AN D DIAGNOSIS 

Your skin appearance will help your doctor make a diagnosis, and also make suggest blood tests, a wound culture or other test to help rule out the condition

TREATMENT AND DRUGS

Cellulitis treatment is usually a prescription oral antibiotics. Within three days of starting an antibiotic, let your doctor know whether the infection is responding to treatment. you will need to take the antibiotic for as long as your doctor directs.

In most cause, sings and symptoms of cellulitis disappear after afew days . You may need to be hospitalized and receive antibiotics through inta venously if.

  • Sings and symptoms not responding to oral antibiotics
  • Sings and symptoms are extensive
  • You have a high fever 

Usually, doctor prescribe a drug that effective against both streptococci and staphylococci. Your doctor also might recommended elevating the affected area , which may spread recovery.







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